Hart en vaatziekten
- Personal health habits of American cardiologists
This study surveyed all cardiologists in a large coalition of cardiology groups. A 1-page, 25-item anonymous questionnaire containing 3 sections (demographics, medical history, and current medications and supplements) was used. Data from returned questionnaires were analyzed and compared with those in national databases. Eight hundred surveys were sent, and complete data were available for analysis on 471 (59%). The average age of the participants was 48.6 years; 7.1% were women. The average body mass index (BMI) was 25 kg/m(2), and 8% were obese (BMI > or =30 kg/m(2)); 1.3% were active smokers; 89% exercised > or =1 time/week; and 72% had > or =1 alcoholic drink/week. Red wine was the most frequently consumed alcoholic beverage. Associated cardiovascular risks included dyslipidemia (28%), hypertension (14%), and diabetes mellitus (0.6%). Four percent had experienced coronary events. Compared with matched cohorts from the United States (US) population, cardiologists reported lower rates of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus, and the rates of smoking and obesity were 1/18 and 1/3 those of the US population, respectively. Aspirin and statins were each taken daily by about 1/3 of the participants. A cardiologist with dyslipidemia was 5 times as likely to be treated and a cardiologist with hypertension was almost twice as likely to be treated as an American adult man with either of these disorders, respectively. In conclusion, cardiologists appear to follow healthier lifestyles than the general adult US population.
- Low-dose aspirin and upper gastrointestinal damage: epidemiology, prevention and treatment
BACKGROUND: Low-dose aspirin (75-325 mg/day) is widely used for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, due to its action on cyclo-oxygenase (COX), aspirin is associated with upper gastrointestinal (GI) side effects including ulcers and bleeding. SCOPE: This was a comprehensive review of the literature available on the side effects associated with low-dose aspirin, together with the available treatment and prevention options, which was based on the authors' expertise in the field and a supplementary PubMed search limited to papers published in English during the last 10 years, up to November 2006. FINDINGS: Although the risk of upper GI side effects is smaller with low-dose aspirin compared with non-selective, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), it is nevertheless a substantial healthcare issue. Factors associated with an increased risk of upper GI complications during low-dose aspirin therapy include aspirin dose, history of ulcer or upper GI bleeding, age > 70 years, concomitant use of NSAIDs (including COX-2-selective NSAIDs), and Helicobacter pylori infection. Co-administration of a gastroprotective agent such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may be useful for alleviating the upper GI side effects associated with use of low-dose aspirin. Eradication of H. pylori also appears to reduce the risk of these side effects, especially in those at high risk. The use of other antiplatelet agents such as clopidogrel does not seem to provide a safer alternative to low-dose aspirin in at-risk patients. CONCLUSIONS: Prophylactic low-dose aspirin therapy is associated with an increased risk of developing upper GI side effects. Administration of a PPI seems the most effective therapy for the prevention and/or relief of such side effects in at-risk patients. H. pylori eradication therapy further reduces the risk of upper GI bleeding in these patients.
- Prevention of myocardial infarction and stroke by aspirin: different mechanisms? Different dosage?
More than 50 randomized trials have documented the efficacy and safety of aspirin as an antiplatelet agent and a cardiovascular drug. However, the optimal dose for preventing coronary and cerebral thrombosis has long been a cause of debate. For patients with ischaemic heart disease the range recommended for the prevention of a secondary event, based on strong clinical evidence, is 75-160 mg aspirin/day. For patients with cerebrovascular disease, recommendations range from 30-1300 mg/day. If these patients require a higher dose of aspirin it suggests that a different mechanism of action is involved. This paper considers hypotheses and reports the findings of recent clinical trials. The SALT study compared aspirin with placebo in 1360 patients with TIA or minor ischaemic stroke. It showed an 18% reduction in the risk of stroke or death in patients receiving 75 mg aspirin/day. Five other trials of 55,000 patients with ischaemic cerebrovascular disease compared the protective effect of aspirin (range 30-300 mg/day) with placebo, clopidogrel, or oral anticoagulants. Aspirin was better than placebo, safer than oral anticoagulants, and no different from clopidogrel. The implications of these findings are discussed. Mechanistic studies and randomized clinical trials strongly suggest that the mechanism of action and dose requirement of the antithrombotic effect of aspirin in patients with cerebrovascular disease is the same as that for ischaemic heart disease.
- Adherence to aspirin in the prevention of myocardial infarction. The Physicians' Health Study
BACKGROUND: The primary aim of this article was to explore, in subgroup analyses, whether participants with differing frequencies of aspirin consumption in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, primary prevention trial had different magnitudes of benefit in the prevention of myocardial infarction. Secondary aims were to identify factors associated with adherence and to examine the relationship of adherence with cardiovascular outcomes in the placebo group. METHODS: The Physicians' Health Study randomized 22071 US male physicians who were free of myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular disease at baseline. The average follow-up during the aspirin component of the trial was 60.2 months. Baseline cardiovascular risk factors and adherence to therapy during the trial were assessed by questionnaire; cardiovascular outcomes were reported by questionnaire and confirmed by record review by an Endpoints Committee. RESULTS: Several cardiovascular disease risk factors assessed at baseline were related to poor adherence (taking < 50% of study tablets): cigarette smoking, obesity, lack of exercise, and history of angina. After adjusting for baseline differences in risk factors, participants in the aspirin group with excellent adherence (taking at least 95% of study tablets) had a statistically significant 51% reduction in myocardial infarction compared with those with excellent adherence in the placebo group. Those in the aspirin group with poor adherence had a smaller, non-significant reduction in risk of myocardial infarction (a 17% reduction associated with taking < 50% of study tablets). In the placebo group better adherence was not associated with decreased risk of myocardial infarction, but was strongly associated with decreased risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: These subgroup data raise the possibility that a less than alternate day aspirin regimen may yield lower benefits in the prevention of myocardial infarction. Alternate explanations are that these analyses reflect either the play of chance or effects of uncontrolled confounding since comparisons were no longer randomized. Randomized trials are necessary to address the question of frequency of administration of aspirin to achieve optimal benefits in primary prevention of myocardial infarction.
- Aspirin in chronic cardiovascular disease and acute myocardial infarction
The ability of low-dose aspirin to irreversibly inhibit platelet-dependent cyclooxygenase provides a biologic mechanism to explain why this drug may decrease the risk of thrombotic cardiovascular events. Observational epidemiologic studies, both case-control and cohort, have suggested that aspirin might reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease by approximately 20 to 30%. An overview of 25 randomized trials of aspirin among individuals with a history of prior cardiovascular disease demonstrated that those receiving aspirin experienced a significant 25% reduction in the occurrence of "important vascular events," an endpoint that combines nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), nonfatal stroke, and cardiovascular death. There were also significant 32% reductions in subsequent nonfatal MI, 27% reductions in nonfatal stroke, and 15% reductions in vascular mortality. Thus, individuals with a history of MI, stroke, transient ischemic attack, or unstable angina clearly benefit from aspirin. The Second International Study of Infarct Survival (ISIS-2) sought to determine if benefits would accrue if aspirin was given within the first 24 hours of suspected evolving MI. The aspirin group experienced a significant 23% reduction in 5-week vascular mortality compared with those receiving placebo. Aspirin was also associated with significantly fewer reinfarctions and strokes. Thus, among those with suspected evolving MI, aspirin significantly reduces the risk of reinfarction, stroke, and vascular mortality. These analyses indicate that aspirin is of proven value in the therapy of most patients who have survived MI, stroke, or unstable angina, as well as those evolving a suspected MI.
- Low-dose aspirin and vitamin E in people at cardiovascular risk: a randomised trial in general practice. Collaborative Group of the Primary Prevention Project
BACKGROUND: In addition to the treatment of specific cardiovascular risk factors, intervention which interferes with the general mechanisms of atherosclerosis could further reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events. We aimed to investigate in general practice the efficacy of antiplatelets and antioxidants in primary prevention of cardiovascular events in people with one or more major cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: We did a randomised controlled open 2x2 factorial trial to investigate low-dose aspirin (100 mg/day) and vitamin E (300 mg/day) in the prevention of cardiovascular events, in people with one or more of the following: hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes, obesity, family history of premature myocardial infarction, or individuals who were elderly. FINDINGS: 4495 people (2583 female, mean age 64.4 years) were included in the trial. After a mean follow-up of 3.6 years the trial was prematurely stopped on ethical grounds when newly available evidence from other trials on the benefit of aspirin in primary prevention was strictly consistent with the results of the second planned interim analysis. Aspirin lowered the frequency of all the endpoints, being significant for cardiovascular death (from 1.4 to 0.8%; relative risk 0.56 [95% CI 0.31-0.99]) and total cardiovascular events (from 8.2 to 6.3%; 0.77 [0.62-0.95]). Severe bleedings were more frequent in the aspirin group than the no-aspirin group (1.1% vs 0.3%; p<0.0008). Vitamin E showed no effect on any prespecified endpoint. Analyses were by intention-to-treat. INTERPRETATION: In women and men at risk of having a cardiovascular event because of the presence of at least one major risk factor, low-dose aspirin given in addition to treatment of specific risk factors contributes an additional preventive effect, with an acceptable safety profile. The results on vitamin E's cardiovascular primary preventive efficacy are not conclusive per se, although our results are consistent with the negative results of other large published trials on secondary prevention.
- Double-blind trial of aspirin in primary prevention of myocardial infarction in patients with stable chronic angina pectoris. The Swedish Angina Pectoris Aspirin Trial (SAPAT) Group
Clinical trials have demonstrated a prophylactic role for aspirin in myocardial infarction and in unstable angina pectoris. The Swedish Angina Pectoris Aspirin Trial (SAPAT) is the first prospective study of aspirin in stable angina. 2035 patients were randomised double-blind to treatment with aspirin 75 mg daily or placebo. All patients were treated with sotalol for control of symptoms. The median duration of follow-up was 50 months. Compared with the placebo+sotalol group, the aspirin+sotalol group had a 34% (81 vs 124 patients) reduction in primary outcome events (myocardial infarction and sudden death; 95% confidence interval 24-49%; p = 0.003) and the reduction observed in secondary outcome events (vascular events, vascular death, all cause mortality, stroke) ranged from 22% to 32%. Treatment withdrawal caused by adverse events occurred in 109 patients in the aspirin+sotalol group and 100 in patients in the placebo+sotalol group; major bleeds, including haemorrhagic stroke, occurred in 20 and 13 patients, respectively (not significant). The addition of a low dose of aspirin to sotalol treatment showed significant benefit in terms of cardiovascular events, including a significant reduction in the incidence of first myocardial infarction in patients with symptoms of stable angina pectoris.
- Dikkedarmkanker een van meest voorkomende vormen van kanker
Dikkerdarmkanker (colon- en rectumkanker) is ťťn van de meest voorkomende vormen van kanker in Nederland. Na borstkanker is het de belangrijkste vorm van kanker bij vrouwen, en na prostaat- en longkanker de belangrijkste kanker bij mannen. In 2003 werden 9.898 nieuwe gevallen van dikkedarmkanker gediagnosticeerd (5.157 mannen en 4.741 vrouwen). Op 1 januari 2002 werd het totaal aantal patiŽnten met dikkedarmkanker geschat op ongeveer 39.000. In 2004 stierven 1.694 mannen en 1.772 vrouwen ten gevolge van colonkanker. In datzelfde jaar overleden 566 mannen en 397 vrouwen ten gevolge van rectumkanker. Het aantal nieuwe gevallen per jaar is hoog in vergelijking met andere Europese landen. De sterfte als gevolg van dikkedarmkanker in Nederland ligt daarentegen op het niveau van het Europees gemiddelde. De overleving is relatief gunstig in vergelijking met de rest van Europa.
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and selective apoptotic anti-neoplastic drugs in the prevention of colorectal cancer: the role of super aspirins
There is increasing evidence to suggest that aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. This observation is supported by animal studies that show fewer tumors per animal and fewer animals with tumors after administration of several different NSAIDs. Intervention data in familial adenomatous polyposis have established that the effect is exerted on the process of human colonic adenoma formation. Supportive evidence in sporadic colorectal neoplasia, derived from 22 of 24 studies (both case-control and cohort), found a reduced risk in men and women for cancers of the colon and the rectum and for both aspirin and the other NSAIDs. Earlier detection of lesions as a result of drug-induced bleeding does not seem to account for these findings. Although the molecular mechanism responsible for the chemopreventive action of this class of drugs is not yet completely understood, the protection may affect several pathways including both cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis. In the third millennium the question is not if but how. Based on the consistency of epidemiological, clinical and experimental data, the association between regular long-term aspirin or NSAIDs intake and a decreased death rate from colorectal cancer is sound and there is no need for further placebo trials. At the same time, despite this consistency there is no clear data on the dose, duration or frequency of use for cancer-preventive activity.
- Do NSAIDs prevent colorectal cancer?
There is increasing evidence to suggest that acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. This observation is supported by animal studies that show fewer tumours per animal and fewer animals with tumours after administration of several different NSAIDs. Studies in humans consistently support this hypothesis. Intervention data from familial adenomatosis coli establish that the process of human colonic adenoma polyp formation is affected. Supportive evidence comes from 21 of 23 human studies - both case-control and cohort. The reduced risk has been found in men and women, for cancers of the colon and the rectum and for the use of both ASA and the other NSAIDs. Earlier detection of lesions as a result of drug-induced bleeding does not seem to account for these findings. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the chemopreventive action of this class of drugs is not completely established. Protection may affect several pathways, including cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis. Because of the consistency of epidemiological, clinical and experimental data, there is no need for further placebo trials. At the same time, there is a need to establish the dose, duration and frequency of use required for cancer-preventive activity.
- Aspirin in radiation-induced diarrhoea
PIP: The side effects of nausea and diarrhea have frequently been observed following the administration of prostaglandin E2 or F2alpha for the induction of labor or abortion. The oral administration of prostaglandin E1 to volunteers has elicited similar reactions. Reports that aspirin might relieve some types of nausea or diarrhea led to the testing of aspirin against the diarrhea induced by the radiation therapy of cancer of the uterine cervix. The treatment of cervical cancer by a combination of external radiation and radium often produces diarrhea, probably because loops of bowel in the path of X-rays are damaged. 15 women between the ages of 47 and 65 who had been irradiated for cancer of the cervix and who had developed diarrhea that failed to respond to conventional therapy participated in a preliminary trial. When conventional therapy failed, it was abandoned and each patient was given 900 mg of soluble aspirin B.P. ("Slfrin") by mouth, 4 times daily. In 4 patients the diarrhea cleared up completely within 24 hours of taking the aspirin. The diarrhea was improved in 8 patients, although in 2 it relapsed 48 hours after improvement was 1st observed. Colicky pain which accompanied diarrhea in 3 patients disappeared during aspirin therapy. 1 patient who had severe nausea experienced marked relief. The findings indicate that aspirin may be of value in the treatment of diarrhea induced by radiation. Since prostaglandin synthesis can be provoked by many different forms of stimulation, and because aspirin at low concentrations inhibits this synthesis, it is suggested that prostaglandins are involved in radiation induced diarrhea. A carefully controlled trial of aspirin in the treatment of radiation induced diarrhea is now being conducted.
- Aspirin and neoplasia of the digestive tract: is there a chemopreventive effect?
There has been much recent interest in the hypothesis that aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) protect against gastrointestinal, particularly colorectal, carcinoma. Three lines of evidence support this hypothesis: First, NSAIDs inhibit the growth of colorecal neoplasms in laboratory rodents. Epidemiological studies in humans also suggest a protective effect. Three case control and two cohort studies have examined the relation between aspirin use and large bowel neoplasia, and four of these five studies found a risk reduction for either incidence or mortality of about 50% in regular users of aspirin. Finally, two small intervention studies in patients with familial polyposis showed a short-term reduction in polyp formation in patients treated with NSAIDs. In contrast, a large randomized trial of aspirin in human subjects detected no reduction in incidence of colorectal carcinoma in those assigned to aspirin compared to placebo. Colorectal cancer is common and an effective primary prevention strategy could lead to significant public health benefits. Further research into the potential of aspirin to achieve this is keenly awaited. It is, however, premature to recommend it specifically for this purpose on the basis of current evidence, given the known adverse effects of aspirin and related compounds, especially on the gastrointestinal tract.
Maagdarmstoornissen: Candida infectie - Prikkelbaredarmsyndroom - Crohn - Colitus Ulcerosa - CVS/ME: Chronische vermoeidheid Syndroom - Diabetische complicaties: Bloeduiker stabilisatie - Neuropathie - Retinopathie - Nefropathie - Hart- en vaatziekten: Cardiomyopathie en Hartfalen - Hoge bloeddruk - Cholesterol verlaging - Aderverkalking (atherosclerose) - Spataderen - Levensverlenging: 100 jaren jong - DHEA - Melatonine - 65+ - Kanker: - Ondersteuningstherapie bij kanker - Bot en gewrichtsaandoeningen: - Artrose - Artritis - Osteoporose - Fibromyalgie: - Fibromyalgie - Urinewegaandoeningen: - Prostaatklachten - Blaasontsteking - Vrouwenklachten: Menopauze - Premenstrueelsyndroom - Overgewicht: - Overgewicht - SLIM - Oogaandoeningen: Staar - Slecht zien Andere artikelen: - HPU - Astma - Multiple Sclerose - Psoriasis - Depressie