- Programmed Death Phenomena: From Organelle to Organism
Programmed death phenomena appear to be inherent not only in living cells (apoptosis), but also in subcellular organelles (e.g., self-elimination of mitochondria, called mitoptosis), organs (organoptosis), and even whole organisms (phenoptosis). In all these cases, the "Samurai law of biology"óit is better to die than to be wrongóseems to be operative. It is suggested that injury accumulation is monitored by a system(s) actuating a phenoptotic death program when the number of injuries reaches some critical level. The system(s) in question are organized in such a way that the lethal case appears to be a result of phenoptosis long before the occasional injuries make impossible the functioning of the organism. It is stressed that for humans these cruel regulations look like an atavism that, if overcome, might dramatically prolong the human life span.
- Programmed cell death: new thoughts and relevance to aging
Cell death is a common phenomenon in developmental biology, and recent data suggest that it is as tightly regulated as mitosis. For numerous systems endocrine and neuronal factors are required to maintain viability of cells, as are specific diffusible and other unknown factors deriving from intimate cell-to-cell contact; and, in some instances, specific hormones or other circulating factors induce spontaneous self-destruction by the targeted cells. Some cells such as thymocytes may be primed to self-destruct and hence activate specific enzymes. In others, the doomed cell up-regulates a limited number of genes just before it dies. Of these genes, several are known but are not considered to cause cell death; others are under investigation. Although the situation is clearest for developmental biology, it appears that the presumptively random loss of cells in senescence results from invocation of the same mechanisms. Understanding and control of these mechanisms could conceivably lead either to protection against cell loss or specific induction of lysis in malignant cells.
- Mitochondrial control of apoptosis: an overview
The mitochondrial permeability transition (PT) pore, also called the mitochondrial megachannel, is a multiprotein complex formed at the contact site between the mitochondrial inner and outer membranes, exactly the same location at which Bax, Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL are particularly abundant. The PT pore participates in the regulation of matrix Ca2+, pH, transmembrane potential and volume, and functions as a Ca(2+)-, voltage-, pH- and redox-gated channel with several levels of conductance and little, if any, ion selectivity. We have obtained three independent lines of evidence implicating the mitochondrial PT pore in apoptosis. First, in intact cells, apoptosis is accompanied by an early dissipation of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, delta psi m. In several models of apoptosis, specific agents inhibiting the mitochondrial PT pore abolish this dissipation of the delta psi m and simultaneously prevent activation of downstream caspases and endonucleases, indicating that PT pore opening can be a critical event of the apoptotic process. Secondly, mitochondria are rate-limiting for caspase and nuclease activation in several cell-free systems of apoptosis. Isolated mitochondria release apoptogenic factors capable of activating pro-caspases or endonucleases upon opening of the mitochondrial megachannel in vitro. Thirdly, opening of the purified PT pore complex reconstituted into liposomes is inhibited by recombinant Bcl-2 or Bcl-XL, two apoptosis-inhibitory proteins that also prevent PT pore opening in cells and isolated mitochondria. Altogether, our results suggest that PT pore opening is sufficient and (mostly) necessary for triggering apoptosis. The implications of these findings are examined in the light of pharmacological interventions in apoptosis.
- The central role of the mitochondrial megachannel in apoptosis: evidence obtained with intact cells, isolated mitochondria, and purified protein complexes
The mitochondrial megachannel (also called permeability transition pore) is a polyprotein complex formed in the contact site between the inner and the outer mitochondrial membranes and participates in the regulation of mitochondrial membrane permeability. We have obtained three independent lines of evidence suggesting the implication of the mitochondrial megachannel in apoptosis.
- Role of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in apoptosis
Mitochondrial permeability transition (PT) involves the formation of proteaceous, regulated pores, probably by apposition of inner and outer mitochondrial membrane proteins which cooperate to form the mitochondrial megachannel (= mitochondrial PT pore). PT has important metabolic consequences, namely the collapse of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, uncoupling of the respiratory chain, hyperproduction of superoxide anions, disruption of mitochondrial biogenesis, outflow of matrix calcium and glutathione, and release of soluble intermembrane proteins. Recent evidence suggests that PT is a critical, rate limiting event of apoptosis (programmed cell death)
- Mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitors induce apoptosis
In this paper the specific mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitors rotenone and antimycin A and the highly specific mitochondrial ATP-synthase inhibitor oligomycin are shown to induce an apoptotic suicide response in cultured human lymphoblastoid and other mammalian cells within 12-18 h. The mitochondrial inhibitors do not induce apoptosis in cells depleted of mitochondrial DNA and thus lacking an intact mitochondrial respiratory chain. Apoptosis induced by respiratory chain inhibitors is not inhibited by the presence of Bcl-2. We discuss the possible role of mitochondrial induced apoptosis in the ageing process and age-associated diseases.
- An age-associated correlation between cellular bioenergy decline and mtDNA rearrangements in human skeletal muscle
Post-mitotic tissues such as skeletal muscle develop a tissue bioenergy mosaic during the process of normal aging that eventually culminates into a bioenergetically diverse tissue containing cells ranging in their oxidative phosphorylation capacity from normal to grossly defective.
Maagdarmstoornissen: Candida infectie - Prikkelbaredarmsyndroom - Crohn - Colitus Ulcerosa - CVS/ME: Chronische vermoeidheid Syndroom - Diabetische complicaties: Bloeduiker stabilisatie - Neuropathie - Retinopathie - Nefropathie - Hart- en vaatziekten: Cardiomyopathie en Hartfalen - Hoge bloeddruk - Cholesterol verlaging - Aderverkalking (atherosclerose) - Spataderen - Levensverlenging: 100 jaren jong - DHEA - Melatonine - 65+ - Kanker: - Ondersteuningstherapie bij kanker - Bot en gewrichtsaandoeningen: - Artrose - Artritis - Osteoporose - Fibromyalgie: - Fibromyalgie - Urinewegaandoeningen: - Prostaatklachten - Blaasontsteking - Vrouwenklachten: Menopauze - Premenstrueelsyndroom - Overgewicht: - Overgewicht - SLIM - Oogaandoeningen: Staar - Slecht zien Andere artikelen: - HPU - Astma - Multiple Sclerose - Psoriasis - Depressie