CarnitineL-carnitine and its derivative, propionyl-L-carnitine, are organic amines produced and metabolized endogenously. These compounds are essential in the process of fatty acid oxidation and have also been shown to reduce intracellular accumulation of toxic metabolites during ischemia. Currently, exogenous administration of carnitine is indicated only as therapy for primary and secondary carnitine deficiency. However, it has been hypothesized that because of its ability to enhance energy production and remove toxic metabolites during ischemia, carnitine therapy may be useful in the treatment of various cardiac diseases. In fact, there is increasing evidence that endogenous carnitine has beneficial effects in the treatment of dilated Cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia, peripheral vascular disease, and acute ischemia.
- Delaying the mitochondrial decay of aging with acetylcarnitine
Oxidative mitochondrial decay is a major contributor to aging. Some of this decay can be reversed in old rats by feeding them normal mitochondrial metabolites, acetylcarnitine (ALC) and lipoic acid (LA), at high levels. Feeding the substrate ALC with LA, a mitochondrial antioxidant, restores the velocity of the reaction (K(m)) for ALC transferase and mitochondrial function. A recent meta-analysis of 21 double-blind clinical trials of ALC in the treatment of mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease showed significant efficacy vs. placebo. A meta-analysis of 4 clinical trials of LA for treatment of neuropathic deficits in diabetes showed significant efficacy vs. placebo.
- Oxidative damage and mitochondrial decay in aging
We argue for the critical role of oxidative damage in causing the mitochondrial dysfunction of aging. Oxidants generated by mitochondria appear to be the major source of the oxidative lesions that accumulate with age. Several mitochondrial functions decline with age. The contributing factors include the intrinsic rate of proton leakage across the inner mitochondrial membrane (a correlate of oxidant formation), decreased membrane fluidity, and decreased levels and function of cardiolipin, which supports the function of many of the proteins of the inner mitochondrial membrane. Acetyl-L-carnitine, a high-energy mitochondrial substrate, appears to reverse many age-associated deficits in cellular function, in part by increasing cellular ATP production. Such evidence supports the suggestion that age-associated accumulation of mitochondrial deficits due to oxidative damage is likely to be a major contributor to cellular, tissue, and organismal aging.
- Acetyl-L-carnitine: a drug able to slow the progress of Alzheimer's disease?
Defects in cholinergic neurotransmission do not, by themselves, constitute the sole pathophysiologic concomitants of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent findings point out that abnormalities in membrane phospholipid turnover and in brain energy metabolism may also characterize AD. Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) is an endogenous substance that, acting as an energy carrier at the mitochondrial level, controls the availability of acetyl-L-CoA. ALC has a variety of pharmacologic properties that exhibit restorative or even protective actions against aging processes and neurodegeneration. A review of a series of controlled clinical studies suggests that ALC may also slow the natural course of AD.
- AcetylLevocarnitine administration in elderly subjects with rapid muscle fatigue: effect on body composition, lipid profile and fatigue
Administration of levocarnitine to healthy elderly subjects resulted in a reduction of total fat mass, an increase of total muscle mass, and appeared to exert a favourable effect on fatigue and serum lipids.
- Acetyl-L-carnitine and Alzheimer's disease: pharmacological considerations beyond the cholinergic sphere
Since ALCAR and L-carnitine are "shuttles" of long chain fatty acids between the cytosol and the mitochondria to undergo beta-oxidation, they play an essential role in energy production and in clearing toxic accumulations of fatty acids in the mitochondria. ALCAR has been considered of potential use in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT) because of its ability to serve as a precursor for acetylcholine. However, pharmacological studies with ALCAR in animals have demonstrated its facility to maximize energy production and promote cellular membrane stability, particularly its ability to restore membranal changes that are age-related. Since recent investigations have implicated abnormal energy processing leading to cell death, and severity-dependent membrane disruption in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease, we speculate that the beneficial effects associated with ALCAR administration in Alzheimer patients are due not only to its cholinergic properties, but also to its ability to support physiological cellular functioning at the mitochondrial level. This hypothetical mechanism of action is discussed with respect to compelling supportive animal studies and recent observations of significant decrease of carnitine acetyltransferase (the catalyst of L-carnitine acylation to acetyl-L-carnitine) in autopsied Alzheimer brains.
- Neurodegeneration from mitochondrial insufficiency: nutrients, stem cells, growth factors, and prospects for brain rebuilding using integrative management
Orthomolecular nutrients involved in mitochondrial metabolism provide clinical benefit. Among these are the essential minerals and the B vitamin group; vitamins E and K; and the antioxidant and energetic cofactors alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10; CoQ10), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, reduced (NADH). Recent advances in the area of stem cells and growth factors encourage optimism regarding brain regeneration. The trophic nutrients acetyl L-carnitine (ALCAR), glycerophosphocholine (GPC), and phosphatidylserine (PS) provide mitochondrial support and conserve growth factor receptors; all three improved cognition in double-blind trials. The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is enzymatically combined with GPC and PS to form membrane phospholipids for nerve cell expansion. Practical recommendations are presented for integrating these safe and well-tolerated orthomolecular nutrients into a comprehensive dietary supplementation program for brain vitality and productive lifespan.
- Acetyl-L-carnitine corrects the altered peripheral nerve function of experimental diabetes
Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) has been shown to facilitate the repair of transected sciatic nerves. The effect of ALC (50 mg/kg/d) on the diminished nerve conduction velocity (NCV) of rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemia of 3 weeks' duration was evaluated. The aldose reductase inhibitor, sorbinil, which is reported to normalize the impaired NCV associated with experimental diabetes, was used as a positive control. Aldose reductase inhibitors are thought to have an effect by decreasing peripheral nerve sorbitol content and increasing nerve myo-inositol. Treatment of STZ-diabetic rats with either ALC or sorbinil resulted in normal NCV. Sorbinil treatment was associated with normalized sciatic nerve sorbitol and myo-inositol; ALC treatment did not reduce the elevated sorbitol levels, but sciatic nerve myo-inositol content was no different from nondiabetic levels. Both ALC and sorbinil treatment of STZ-diabetic rats were associated with a reduction in the elevated malondialdehyde (MDA) content of diabetic sciatic nerve, indicating reduced lipid peroxidation. The beneficial effects of sorbinil and ALC on the altered peripheral nerve function associated with diabetes were similar, but their effects on the polyol pathway (frequently implicated in the pathogenesis of peripheral neuropathy) were different.
- Effects of carnitine on thyroid hormone action
By experiments on cells (neurons, hepatocytes, and fibroblasts) that are targets for thyroid hormones and a randomized clinical trial on iatrogenic hyperthyroidism, we validated the concept that L-carnitine is a peripheral antagonist of thyroid hormone action. In particular, L-carnitine inhibits both triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) entry into the cell nuclei. This is relevant because thyroid hormone action is mainly mediated by specific nuclear receptors. In the randomized trial, we showed that 2 and 4 grams per day of oral L-carnitine are capable of reversing hyperthyroid symptoms (and biochemical changes in the hyperthyroid direction) as well as preventing (or minimizing) the appearance of hyperthyroid symptoms (or biochemical changes in the hyperthyroid direction). It is noteworthy that some biochemical parameters (thyrotropin and urine hydroxyproline) were refractory to the L-carnitine inhibition of thyroid hormone action, while osteocalcin changed in the hyperthyroid direction, but with a beneficial end result on bone. A very recent clinical observation proved the usefulness of L-carnitine in the most serious form of hyperthyroidism: thyroid storm. Since hyperthyroidism impoverishes the tissue deposits of carnitine, there is a rationale for using L-carnitine at least in certain clinical settings.
- Carnitine is a naturally occurring inhibitor of thyroid hormone nuclear uptake
Carnitine (3-hydroxy-4N-trimethylammoniumbutanoate) is a naturally occurring quaternary amine that is ubiquitous in mammalian tissues (concentrations in the order of mM). Based on limited studies of approximately 40 years ago, carnitine was considered to be a peripheral antagonist of thyroid hormone (TH) action. These interesting observations have not been explored. To study the biologic basis of this effect, we tested the following possibilities in three TH-responsive cell lines: (1) inhibition of TH entry into cells; (2) inhibition of TH entry into the nucleus; (3) inhibition of TH interaction with the isolated nuclei; and (4) facilitated efflux of TH from cells. On a preliminary basis we had verified that these cell lines (human skin fibroblasts, human hepatoma cells HepG2, and mouse neuroblastoma cells NB 41A3) take up 14Ccarnitine; however, there was no 14Ccarnitine uptake into the nuclei. Concentrations of unlabeled carnitine as high as 100 mM did not affect (125I)T3 binding to isolated nuclei or exit of TH from cells, thus excluding possibilities numbered 3 and 4. At 10 mM camitine, (125I)T3 and (125I)T4 whole-cell uptake was inhibited by approximately 20% in fibroblasts and in HepG2, but by approximately 5% in NB 41A3 cells. Inhibition of T3 nuclear uptake was evaluated in HepG2 and NB 41A3 cells. At 10 mM carnitine, inhibition of T3 nuclear uptake was disproportionately higher, namely approximately 25% in neurons and 35% in hepatocytes. At 50 mM carnitine, there was a minimal additional decrease in whole-cell uptake of either hormone but a marked decrease in T3 nuclear uptake. The latter inhibition was approximately 60% in neurons and 70% in hepatocytes. We are aware of no inhibitor of TH uptake that has such a markedly different effect on the nuclear versus whole-cell uptake. Our data are consistent with carnitine being a peripheral antagonist of TH action, and they indicate a site of inhibition at or before the nuclear envelope..
Alfa liponzuurAlpha Lipoic Acid - Anti oxidant know to affect cellular metabolism and can speed up cellular energy production helping cells heal more quickly. Alpha lipoic acid is one of the most potent and active antioxidants known. Functions as both a water soluble and fat soluble antioxidant. Alpha-lipoic acid also plays an important role in the synergism of antioxidants. It directly recycles and extends the metabolic lifespans of vitamin C, glutathione, and coenzyme Q10, and it indirectly renews vitamin E.
- Alpha-lipoic acid in liver metabolism and disease
R-alpha-Lipoic acid is found naturally occurring as a prosthetic group in alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes of the mitochondria, and as such plays a fundamental role in metabolism. Although this has been known for decades, only recently has free supplemented alpha-lipoic acid been found to affect cellular metabolic processes in vitro, as it has the ability to alter the redox status of cells and interact with thiols and other antioxidants. Therefore, it appears that this compound has important therapeutic potential in conditions where oxidative stress is involved. Early case studies with alpha-lipoic acid were performed with little knowledge of the action of alpha-lipoic acid at a cellular level, but with the rationale that because the naturally occurring protein bound form of alpha-lipoic acid has a pivotal role in metabolism, that supplementation may have some beneficial effect. Such studies sought to evaluate the effect of supplemented alpha-lipoic acid, using low doses, on lipid or carbohydrate metabolism, but little or no effect was observed. A common response in these trials was an increase in glucose uptake, but increased plasma levels of pyruvate and lactate were also observed, suggesting that an inhibitory effect on the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was occurring. During the same period, alpha-lipoic acid was also used as a therapeutic agent in a number of conditions relating to liver disease, including alcohol-induced damage, mushroom poisoning, metal intoxification, and CCl4 poisoning. Alpha-Lipoic acid supplementation was successful in the treatment for these conditions in many cases. Experimental studies and clinical trials in the last 5 years using high doses of alpha-lipoic acid (600 mg in humans) have provided new and consistent evidence for the therapeutic role of antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of insulin resistance and diabetic polyneuropathy. This new insight should encourage clinicians to use alpha-lipoic acid in diseases affecting liver in which oxidative stress is involved.
- Alpha-lipoic acid and cardiovascular disease
Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) has been identified as a powerful antioxidant found naturally in our diets, but appears to have increased functional capacity when given as a supplement in the form of a natural or synthetic isolate. ALA and its active reduced counterpart, dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA), have been shown to combat oxidative stress by quenching a variety of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Because this molecule is soluble in both aqueous and lipid portions of the cell, its biological functions are not limited solely to one environment. In addition to ROS scavenging, ALA has been shown to be involved in the recycling of other antioxidants in the body including vitamins C and E and glutathione. Not only have the antioxidant qualities of this molecule been studied, but there are also several reports pertaining to its blood lipid modulating characteristics, protection against LDL oxidation and modulation of hypertension. Therefore, ALA represents a possible protective agent against risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this review is to examine the literature pertaining to ALA in relation to CVD and describe the most powerful actions and potential uses of this naturally occurring antioxidant. Despite the numerous studies on ALA, many questions remain relating to the use of ALA as a supplement. There is no consensus on dosage, dose frequency, form of administration, and/or preferred form of ALA. However, collectively the literature increases our understanding of the potential uses for supplementation with ALA and identifies key areas for future research.
- Oxidative stress in closed-head injury: brain antioxidant capacity as an indicator of functional outcome
It has been suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a role in the pathophysiology of brain damage. A number of therapeutic approaches, based on scavenging these radicals, have been attempted both in experimental models and in the clinical setting. In an experimental rat and mouse model of closed-head injury (CHI), we have studied the total tissue nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity to combat ROS. A major mechanism for neutralizing ROS uses endogenous low-molecular weight antioxidants (LMWA). This review deals with the source and nature of ROS in the brain, along with the endogenous defense mechanisms that fight ROS. Special emphasis is placed on LMWA such as ascorbate, urate, tocopherol, lipoic acid, and histidine-related compounds. A novel electrochemical method, using cyclic voltammetry for the determination of total tissue LMWA, is described. The temporal changes in brain LMWA after CHI, as part of the response of the tissue to high ROS levels, and the correlation between the ability of the brain to elevate LMWA and clinical outcome are addressed. We relate to the beneficial effects observed in heat-acclimated rats and the detrimental effects of injury found in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Finally, we summarize the effects of cerebroprotective pharmacological agents including the iron chelator desferal, superoxide dismutase, a stable radical from the nitroxide family, and HU-211, a nonpsychotoropic cannabinoid with antioxidant properties. We conclude that ROS play a key role in the pathophysiology of brain injury, and that their neutralization by endogenous or exogenous antioxidants has a protective effect. It is suggested, therefore, that the brain responds to ROS by increasing LMWA, and that the degree of this response is correlated with clinical recovery. The greater the response, the more favorable the outcome.
- Thioctic acid and dihydrolipoic acid are novel antioxidants which interact with reactive oxygen species
Thioctic acid (TA) and its reduced form dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) have recently gained some recognition as useful biological antioxidants. In particular, the ability of DHLA to inhibit lipid peroxidation has been reported. In the present study, the effects of TA and DHLA on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in the aqueous phase have been investigated. Xanthine plus xanthine oxidase-generated superoxide radicals (O2-), detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) using DMPO as a spin trap, were eliminated by DHLA but not by TA. The sulfhydryl content of DHLA, measured using Ellman's reagent decreased subsequent to the incubation with xanthine plus xanthine oxidase confirming the interaction between DHLA and O2-. An increase of hydrogen peroxide concentration accompanied the reaction between DHLA and O2-, suggesting the reduction of O2- by DHLA. Competition of O2- with epinephrine allowed us to estimate a second order kinetic constant of the reaction between O2- and DHLA, which was found to be a 3.3 x 10(5) M-1 s-1. On the other hand, the DMPO signal of hydroxyl radicals (HO.) generated by Fenton's reagent were eliminated by both TA and DHLA. Inhibition of the Fenton reaction by TA was confirmed by a chemiluminescence measurement using luminol as a probe for HO.. There was no electron transfer from Fe2+ to TA or from DHLA to Fe3+ detected by measuring the Fe(2+)-phenanthroline complex. DHLA did not potentiate the DMPO signal of HO. indicating no prooxidant activity of DHLA. These results suggest that both TA and DHLA possess antioxidant properties. In particular, DHLA is very effective as shown by its dual capability by eliminating both O2- and HO..
- Alpha lipoic acid changes iron uptake and storage in lens epithelial cells
Alpha lipoic acid (LA) is a cofactor in mitochondrial dehydrogenase complexes. Previous studies have shown that when administered exogenously LA has antioxidant properties, which include free radical scavenging, metal chelation and regeneration of other antioxidants. The cells convert LA into dihydroplipoic acid (DHLA), which in the presence of iron can act as a prooxidant. In vitro DHLA reduces Fe(+3) to Fe(+2) and removes iron from ferritin, increasing the risk of Fe catalyzed free radical formation. In the present study we examined the in vivo effects of lipoic acid treatment on Fe metabolism in cultured lens epithelial cells, and found that LA decreases Fe uptake from transferrin, increases Fe deposition into ferritin and increases the concentration of this protein. When administered together with ascorbic acid, lipoic acid changes the characteristic heavy to light chain ratio of ferritin makeup. The decreased Fe uptake and increased storage diminishes the size of the cytosolic highly reactive Fe pool (LIP). These changes are associated with increased cell resistance to H(2)O(2) challenge. Therefore, LA may reduce the risk of Fe induced oxidative damage and also might be useful as a treatment of Fe overload.
- Mercury toxicity and antioxidants: Part 1: role of glutathione and alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of mercury toxicity
Mercury exposure is the second-most common cause of toxic metal poisoning. Public health concern over mercury exposure, due to contamination of fish with methylmercury and the elemental mercury content of dental amalgams, has long been a topic of political and medical debate. Although the toxicology of mercury is complex, there is evidence for antioxidant protection in the prevention of neurological and renal damage caused by mercury toxicity. Alpha-lipoic acid, a coenzyme of pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, has been used in Germany as an antioxidant and approved treatment for diabetic polyneuropathy for 40 years. Research has attempted to identify the role of antioxidants, glutathione and alpha-lipoic acid specifically, in both mitigation of heavy metal toxicity and direct chelation of heavy metals. This review of the literature will assess the role of glutathione and alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of mercury toxicity.
- Thiol chelation of Cu2+ by dihydrolipoic acid prevents human low density lipoprotein peroxidation
Mono-thiols can act either as pro- or anti-oxidants during metal-catalyzed low density lipoprotein (LDL) peroxidation, however investigation of the role of vicinal thiols has been neglected. Therefore dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA), a vicinal dithiol, and lipoic acid, its oxidized form, were used to investigate Cu2+-mediated LDL peroxidation. We demonstrate here that DHLA inhibited Cu2+-dependent LDL peroxidation by chelating copper. DHLA (0-20 microM) increased lag-times of conjugated diene formation in LDL (100 microg/ml) oxidized with 5 microM Cu2+ in a concentration dependent manner, and this effect was saturated after 5 microM DHLA; enough to chelate all of the added Cu2+. In a similar fashion DHLA prevented LDL-mediated reduction of Cu2+ to Cu+. Lipoic acid had no effect in these systems. DHLA alone also reduced Cu2+, however this was inhibited when DHLA was in excess of the copper concentration. Hence there is complex formation between the two species. Copper:DHLA complex formation was further investigated and found to be dependent upon pH and the presence of oxygen. At low pH (<6), or in the absence of oxygen, the complex is stable, presumably due to vicinal thiol chelation. As the pH is increased, the carboxylate group also participates in copper chelation, this results in a less stable complex which is susceptible to oxidation, and copper is eventually released. Electron spin resonance studies demonstrate the formation of hydroxyl, but not superoxide, radicals during Cu2+-catalyzed DHLA oxidation. Thus in our LDL experiments at physiological pH, DHLA is able to either reductively inactivate Cu2+ when Cu2+ is in excess, or effectively chelate Cu2+ when DHLA is in excess. The Cu2+:DHLA complex eventually undergoes copper-catalyzed oxidation, copper is released and LDL peroxidation proceeds. DHLA, thus, has both pro- and antioxidant properties depending upon the ratio of Cu2+:DHLA and the pH. These results provide an additional mechanism of thiol-mediated formation of radicals and metal chelation.
- Thioctic (lipoic) acid: a therapeutic metal-chelating antioxidant?
Thioctic (alpha-lipoic) acid (TA) is a drug used for the treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy in Germany. It has been proposed that TA acts as an antioxidant and interferes with the pathogenesis of diabetic polyneuropathy. We suggest that one component of its antioxidant activity requiring study is the direct transition metal-chelating activity of the drug. We found that TA had a profound dose-dependent inhibitory effect upon Cu(2+)-catalysed ascorbic acid oxidation (monitored by O2 uptake and spectrophotometrically at 265 nm) and also increased the partition of Cu2+ into n-octanol from an aqueous solution suggesting that TA forms a lipophilic complex with Cu2+. TA also inhibited Cu(2+)-catalysed liposomal peroxidation. Furthermore, TA inhibited intracellular H2O2 production in erythrocytes challenged with ascorbate, a process thought to be mediated by loosely chelated Cu2+ within the erythrocyte. These data, taken together, suggest that prior intracellular reduction of TA to dihydrolipoic acid is not an obligatory mechanism for an antioxidant effect of the drug, which may also operate via Cu(2+)-chelation. The R-enantiomer and racemic mixture of the drug (alpha-TA) generally seemed more effective than the S-enantiomer in these assays of metal chelation.
- Studies on the efficacy of lipoate and dihydrolipoate in the alteration of cadmium2+ toxicity in isolated hepatocytes
Lipoate (thioctic acid) is presently used in therapy of a variety of diseases such as liver and neurological disorders. However, nothing is known about the efficacy of lipoate and its reduced form dihydrolipoate in acute cadmium (Cd2+) toxicity which involves severe liver disturbances. Therefore, we investigated the effects of these redox compounds on Cd2(+)-induced injuries in isolated rat hepatocytes. The cells were coincubated with 150 microM Cd2+ and either 1.5-6.0 mM lipoate or 17-89 microM dihydrolipoate for up to 90 min and Cd2+ uptake as well as viability criteria were monitored. Both exposure regimens diminished Cd2+ uptake in correspondence to time and concentration. They also ameliorated Cd2(+)-induced cell deterioration as reflected by the decrease in Cd2(+)-induced membrane damage (leakage of aspartate aminotransferase), by the lessening of the Cd2(+)-stimulated lipid peroxidation (TBA-reactants) and by the increase in Cd2(+)-depleted cellular glutathione (GSH + 2 GSSG). Half-maximal protection was achieved at molar ratios of 9.9 to 19 (lipoate vs. Cd2+) and 0.25 to 0.74 (dihydrolipoate vs. Cd2+), indicating a 19.5 to 50.6 lower protective efficacy of lipoate as compared to dihydrolipoate. Lipoate induced an increase in extracellular acid-soluble thiols different from glutathione. It is suggested that dihydrolipoate primarily protects cells by extracellular chelation of Cd2+, whereas intracellular reduction of lipoate to the dihydro-compound followed by complexation of both intra- and extracellular Cd2+ contributes to the amelioration provided by lipoate.
- Randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind study on the clinical efficacy of a cream containing 5% alpha-lipoic acid related to photoageing of facial skin
BACKGROUND: alpha-lipoic acid (LA) or the reduced form dihydrolipoate (DHLA) is a potent scavenger with anti-inflammatory properties. Previous uncontrolled studies with topical treatment with 5% LA-containing creams indicate a beneficial effect on photoageing skin. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a cream containing 5% LA showed any advantages concerning a number of the criteria associated with ageing of the facial skin, compared with an identical cream lacking LA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-three women, mean age 54.4 years, were included in this controlled study. After randomization half the face was treated twice daily for 12 weeks with the LA cream and the other half with the control cream. The following methods of assessment were used: self-evaluation by the test subjects, clinical evaluation, photographic evaluation and laser profilometry. Profilometry was performed before the start of treatment and at the end. RESULTS: All four methods of assessment showed a statistically significant improvement on the LA-treated half of the face. Laser profilometry, the most objective method used, showed an average decrease in skin roughness of 50.8% (44.9-54.0) on the LA-treated side, compared with 40.7% (32.4-48.7) on the placebo-treated half of the face P < 0.001 (Wilcoxon matched pairs test). CONCLUSIONS: It is indicated that 12 weeks of treatment with a cream containing 5% LA improves clinical characteristics related to photoageing of facial skin.
- Effect of DL-alpha-lipoic acid on mitochondrial enzymes in aged rats
Mitochondrial dysfunction appears to contribute to some of the loss of function accompanying ageing. Mitochondria from aged tissue use oxygen inefficiently impairing ATP synthesis and results in increased oxidant production. A high flux of oxidants not only damages mitochondria, but other important cell biomolecules as well. In the present investigation, the levels of lipid peroxidation, oxidized glutathione, non-enzymatic antioxidants and the activities of mitochondrial enzymes were measured in liver and kidney mitochondria of young and aged rats before and after lipoic acid supplementation. In both liver and kidney increase in the levels of mitochondrial lipid peroxidation and oxidized glutathione and decrease in the levels of antioxidants and the activities of mitochondrial enzymes were observed in aged rats. DL-alpha-lipoic acid supplemented aged rats showed a decrease in the levels of lipid peroxidation and oxidized glutathione and increase in the levels of reduced glutathione, vitamins C and E and the activities of mitochondrial enzymes like isocitrate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, NADH-dehydrogenase and cytochrome-c-oxidase. Thus, lipoic acid reverses the age-associated decline in endogenous low molecular weight antioxidants and mitochondrial enzymes and, therefore, may lower the increased risk of oxidative damage that occurs during ageing. From our results it can be concluded that lipoic acid supplementation enhances the activities of mitochondrial enzymes and antioxidant status and thereby protects mitochondria from ageing.
- Lipoic acid as a potential therapy for chronic diseases associated with oxidative stress
alpha-Lipoic acid (LA), a naturally occurring dithiol compound, has long been known as an essential cofactor for mitochondrial bioenergetic enzymes. Aside from its enzymatic role, in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that LA also acts as a powerful micronutrient with diverse pharmacologic and antioxidant properties. Pharmacologically, LA improves glycemic control, polyneuropathies associated with diabetes mellitus, and effectively mitigates toxicities associated with heavy metal poisoning. As an antioxidant, LA directly terminates free radicals, chelates transition metal ions (e.g. iron and copper), increases cytosolic glutathione and vitamin C levels and prevents toxicities associated with their loss. These diverse actions suggest that LA acts by multiple mechanisms both physiologically and pharmacologically, many of which are only now being explored. Herein, we review the known biochemical properties of LA with particular reference to how LA may be an effective agent to ameliorate certain pathophysiologies of many chronic diseases.
Combinatie carnitine en alfa liponzuur
- L-carnitine and alpha-lipoic acid improve age-associated decline in mitochondrial respiratory chain activity of rat heart muscle
The aging process is characterized by a general decline in physiological functions that affects many tissues and increases the risk of death. In the present investigation using various substrates, the respiration rate was observed in young, middle-aged, and aged rats upon administration of carnitine (300 mg/kg body weight) and lipoic acid (100 mg/kg body weight). We observed that the rate of respiration, both State 3 and respiratory control ratio, decreased significantly in aged rats after using various substrates (except succinate). An increase in the State 4 respiration was observed in aged rats when beta-hydroxybutyrate as well as pyruvate and malate were used as substrates, whereas no change in the adenosine diphosphate/oxygen ratio ratio was observed. These changes were brought to normal levels upon cosupplementation of carnitine and lipoic acid. Thus, this study provides evidence for the role of carnitine and lipoic acid in alleviating the age-related decline in mitochondrial respiratory activity.
- L-carnitine and DL-alpha-lipoic acid reverse the age-related deficit in glutathione redox state in skeletal muscle and heart tissues
In the present study, the glutathione redox system was evaluated as a function of age in rat heart and muscle. A decline in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels is associated with aging and many age-related diseases. Supplementation of carnitine and lipoic acid to aged rats significantly increased the GSH levels thereby increasing the activity of GPx, GR, and G6PDH in skeletal muscle and heart of aged rats. In conclusion, our study suggests that supplementation of carnitine and lipoic acid to aged rats improves the glutathione redox system.
- Oxidative stress on mitochondrial antioxidant defense system in the aging process: role of DL-alpha-lipoic acid and L-carnitine
Co-supplementation of lipoic acid with carnitine has a beneficial effect in reversing the age-related abnormalities seen in aging. This effect was associated with the decrease in free radical production and rise in antioxidant levels by carnitine and lipoic acid, thereby lowering oxidative stress.
- Oxidative stress and DNA single strand breaks in skeletal muscle of aged rats: role of carnitine and lipoicacid
The exposure of biological system to various conditions of oxidative stress is the major contributor for aging process. Oxidative stress in turn increases the cellular levels of oxidatively modified proteins, lipids and nucleic acids resulting in a loss of physical activity and metabolic integrity. We concluded that co-administration of carnitine and lipoic acid to aged rats has the potential to prevent oxidative stress mediated macromolecular damage in skeletal muscle of aged rats by their putative role as efficient antioxidants.
- Carnitine and lipoic acid alleviates protein oxidation in heart mitochondria during aging process
Oxidative modification alters the function of proteins and is thought to play an important role in the decline of cellular function during aging process. Thus we conclude that the utilization of carnitine and lipoic acid will lead to an improvement in the quality of living during the later stages of life by preventing free radical induced damage to the proteins.
- Age-associated deficit of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle: role of carnitine and lipoic acid
Mitochondrial damage has implicated a major contributor for ageing process. From our results, we conclude that combined supplementation of carnitine and lipoic acids to aged rats increases the skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration, thereby increasing the level of ATP.
- Mitigation of age-dependent oxidative damage to DNA in rat heart by carnitine and lipoic acid
Endogenous damage to mtDNA by free radicals is believed to be a major contributory factor to aging. Mitochondrial DNA exists in a highly genotoxic environment created by exposure to reactive oxygen species and thus are more vulnerable to free radical attack. In the present study we have focused on the age associated alterations to DNA during aging and in parallel investigated the efficacy of carnitine (300mg/kg bw) and lipoic acid (100mg/kg bw) for 28 days in altering these changes. We observed a decline in the content of both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA during aging with an exponential increase in the 8-OHdG levels. We also observed an age-dependent increase in DNA protein crosslinks and double strand and single strand breaks. Supplementation of carnitine and lipoic acid during aging process decreased the incidence of these DNA damage, therefore suggesting that this feeding regimen inhibits the accumulation of age-associated oxidative DNA damage.
- Efficacy of levo carnitine and alpha lipoic acid in ameliorating the decline in mitochondrial enzymes during aging
BACKGROUND: Mitochondria are central to energy production and are therefore fully integrated into the rest of the cell's physiological responses to stress. The age-related decline of capacity of each cell to manufacture energy (as ATP) is due to the progressive loss of structural integrity of mitochondria. It is apparent that as the body ages, the cells become less and less able to maintain threshold levels of cellular energy production. METHODS: In the present study we have evaluated the efficacy of carnitine, a mitochondrial metabolite and lipoic acid, a potent antioxidant on the activities of the tri carboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes like succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, Isocitrate dehydrogenase and electron transport complex I-IV in young and aged heart mitochondria. RESULT: We observed that there was an age-dependent decrement in the levels of the TCA cycle enzymes and electron transport chain complexes. Supplementation of carnitine (300 mg/kg bw/day) and lipoic acid (100 mg/kg bw/day) for 30 days brought the activities of these enzymes to almost near normal levels. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the combination of these drugs raises the mitochondrial energy producing capabilities by reversing the age-associated decline in mitochondrial enzyme activities and thereby protecting mitochondria from aging.
Maagdarmstoornissen: Candida infectie - Prikkelbaredarmsyndroom - Crohn - Colitus Ulcerosa - CVS/ME: Chronische vermoeidheid Syndroom - Diabetische complicaties: Bloeduiker stabilisatie - Neuropathie - Retinopathie - Nefropathie - Hart- en vaatziekten: Cardiomyopathie en Hartfalen - Hoge bloeddruk - Cholesterol verlaging - Aderverkalking (atherosclerose) - Spataderen - Levensverlenging: 100 jaren jong - DHEA - Melatonine - 65+ - Kanker: - Ondersteuningstherapie bij kanker - Bot en gewrichtsaandoeningen: - Artrose - Artritis - Osteoporose - Fibromyalgie: - Fibromyalgie - Urinewegaandoeningen: - Prostaatklachten - Blaasontsteking - Vrouwenklachten: Menopauze - Premenstrueelsyndroom - Overgewicht: - Overgewicht - SLIM - Oogaandoeningen: Staar - Slecht zien Andere artikelen: - HPU - Astma - Multiple Sclerose - Psoriasis - Depressie