- Will the 'good fairies' please prove to us that vitamin E lessens human degenerative disease?
Recent research about the role of free radical derivatives of oxygen and nitrogen in biological systems has highlighted the possibility that antioxidants, such as vitamin E, that prevent these processes in vitro may be capable of carrying out a similar function in living organisms in vivo. There is increasing evidence that free radical reactions are involved in the early stages, or sometimes later on, in the development of human diseases, and it is therefore of particular interest to inquire whether vitamin E and other antioxidants, which are found in the human diets, may be capable of lowering the incidence of these diseases.
- Alpha-tocopherol: roles in prevention and therapy of human disease
Alpha-tocopherol, one of the eight isoforms of vitamin E, is the most potent fat-soluble antioxidant known in nature. For years, it was thought that alpha-tocopherol only functioned as a scavenger of lipid peroxyl radicals, specifically, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), thereby serving as a chief antioxidant for the prevention of atherosclerosis. In recent years, the many roles of alpha-tocopherol have been uncovered, and include not only antioxidant functions, but also pro-oxidant, cell signaling and gene regulatory functions. Decades of clinical and preclinical studies have broadened our understanding of the antioxidant vitamin E and its utility in a number of chronic, oxidative stress-induced pathologies. The results of these studies have shown promising, albeit mixed reviews on the efficacy of alpha-tocopherol in the prevention and treatment of heart disease, cancer and Alzheimer's disease. Future studies to uncover cellular and systemic mechanisms may help guide appropriate clinical treatment strategies using vitamin E across a diverse population of aging individuals.
- Antioxidant strategies for Alzheimer's disease
Oxidative damage is present within the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and is observed within every class of biomolecule, including nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Oxidative injury may develop secondary to excessive oxidative stress resulting from beta-amyloid-induced free radicals, mitochondrial abnormalities, inadequate energy supply, inflammation or altered antioxidant defences. Treatment with antioxidants is a promising approach for slowing disease progression to the extent that oxidative damage may be responsible for the cognitive and functional decline observed in AD. Although not a uniformly consistent observation, a number of epidemiological studies have found a link between antioxidant intake and a reduced incidence of dementia, AD and cognitive decline in elderly populations. In AD clinical trials molecules with antioxidant properties such as vitamin E and Ginkgo biloba extract have shown modest benefit. A clinical trial with vitamin E is currently ongoing to determine if it can delay progression to AD in individuals with mild cognitive impairment. Combinations of antioxidants might be of even greater potential benefit for AD, especially if the agents worked in different cellular compartments or had complementary activity (e.g. vitamins E, C and ubiquinone). Naturally-occurring compounds with antioxidant capacity are available and widely marketed (e.g. vitamin C, ubiquinone, lipoic acid, beta-carotene, creatine, melatonin, curcumin) and synthetic compounds are under development by industry. Nevertheless, the clinical value of these agents for AD prevention and treatment is ambiguous, and will remain so until properly designed human trials have been performed.
- Vitamin E and immune response in the aged: molecular mechanisms and clinical implications
Nutritional status has been indicated as a contributing factor to age-related dysregulation of the immune response. Vitamin E, a lipid-soluble antioxidant vitamin, is important for normal function of the immune cells. The elderly are at a greater risk for vitamin E intake that is lower than recommended levels. Vitamin E supplementation above currently recommended levels has been shown to improve immune functions in the aged including delayed-type hypersensitivity skin response and antibody production in response to vaccination, which was shown to be mediated through increased production of interleukin (IL)-2, leading to enhanced proliferation of T cells, and through reduced production of prostaglandin E(2), a T-cell suppressive factor, as a result of a decreased peroxynitrite formation. Vitamin E increased both cell-dividing and IL-producing capacities of naive T cells, but not memory T cells. The vitamin E-induced enhancement of immune functions in the aged was associated with significant improvement in resistance to influenza infection in aged mice and a reduced risk of acquiring upper respiratory infections in nursing home residents. Further studies are needed to determine the signaling mechanisms involved in the upregulation of naive T-cell function by vitamin E as well as the specific mechanisms involved in reduction of risk for upper respiratory infections.
- Age and vitamin E-induced changes in gene expression profiles of T cells
T cells are vulnerable to age-associated changes. Vitamin E has been shown to improve T cell functions in the old. We studied gene expression profiles of T cells to better understand the underlying mechanisms of age and vitamin E-induced changes in T cell function. Young and old C57BL mice were fed diets containing 30 (control) or 500 (supplemented) ppm of vitamin E for 4 wks. Gene expression profiles of T cells were assessed using microarray analysis with/without anti-CD3/anti-CD28 stimulation. Genes associated with cytokines/chemokines, transcriptional regulation, signal transduction, cell cycle, and apoptosis were significantly up-regulated upon stimulation. Higher SOCS3 and lower growth factor independent 1 (Gfi-1) expression in old T cells may contribute to age-associated decline in proliferation. Higher Gadd45 and lower Bcl2 expression may contribute to increased apoptosis in old T cells. Vitamin E supplementation resulted in higher expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation (Ccnb2, Cdc2, Cdc6) in old T cells. Vitamin E supplementation resulted in higher up-regulation of IL-2 expression in young and old T cells and lower up-regulation of IL-4 expression in old T cells following stimulation. These findings suggest that aging has significant effects on the expression of genes associated with signal transduction, transcriptional regulation, and apoptosis pathways in T cells, and vitamin E has a significant impact on the expression of genes associated with cell cycle and Th1/Th2 balance in old T cells. Further studies are needed to determine whether these changes are due to the effects of aging at a single-cell level or to the shift in the ratio of naive:memory T cells with age.
- Vitamin E supplementation increases T helper 1 cytokine production in old mice infected with influenza virus
Compared with young mice, old mice infected with influenza virus have significantly higher pulmonary viral titres, although these can be reduced significantly with dietary vitamin E supplementation. T helper 1 (Th1) cytokines, especially interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), play an important role in defending against influenza infection. Old mice fed the vitamin E-supplemented diet had significantly lower TNF-alpha production (day 2) than those fed the control diet. Our results indicate that the vitamin E-induced decrease in influenza viral titre is mediated through enhancement of Th1 cytokines, which may be the result of reduced PGE2 production caused by vitamin E.
- Anti-AGEing defences against Alzheimer's disease
Accumulation of insoluble protein deposits and their cross-linking by AGEs (advanced glycation end products) in the brain is a feature of aging and neurodegeneration, especially in AD (Alzheimer's disease). In AD, two types of fibrillar protein aggregates are present: extracellular deposits (plaques) consisting mainly of Abeta (beta-amyloid peptide), and intracellular deposits (tangles) composed predominantly of microtubule-associated protein tau. Both plaques and tangles are modified by AGEs, which occurs particularly at lysine and arginine residues. Interaction of a synthetic amyloid plaque (fibrillar Abeta) with microglia leads to a strong pro-inflammatory response, indicating that priming of immune cells with beta-amyloid potentiates their response to secondary stimuli such as AGE and cytokines such as interferon-gamma. Formation of hyperphosphorylated and cross-linked microtubule-associated protein tau aggregates, especially tau dimers as the first step in tangle formation, can be induced in vitro by the combination of okadaic acid, a PP2A phosphatase inhibitor, and methylglyoxal. These results suggest that excess production of reactive carbonyl compound ("carbonyl stress") and subsequent AGE formation can contribute to cross-linking of protein fibrils and to pathological pro-inflammatory signalling, which all contribute to pathological changes and dementia progression in AD. However, the human brain has developed the glyoxalase system, a most effective defence system to scavenge small dicarbonyl compounds such as glyoxal and methylglyoxal. Very importantly, this system needs GSH as a rate-limiting cofactor. Since GSH is limited under conditions of oxidative stress and inflammation, supplementation with antioxidants such as lipoic acid, vitamin E or flavonoids could indirectly strengthen the anti-glycation defence system in AD. In addition, synthetic carbonyl scavengers and anti-inflammatory drugs could also be valuable drugs for the "anti-glycation" treatment of A.
- Antioxidants and immune response in aged persons: overview of present evidence
The oxidant-antioxidant balance is an important determinant of immune cell function, including maintaining the integrity and functionality of membrane lipids, cellular proteins, and nucleic acids and controlling signal transduction and gene expression in immune cells. Optimal amounts of antioxidants are needed for maintenance of the immune response across all age groups. This need might be more critical, however, in aged persons. Age-associated dysregulation of immune response, particularly of T cell-mediated function, is well documented. The well-known age-related increase in free radical formation and lipid peroxidation contributes, at least in part, to this phenomenon. We summarize animal and human studies undertaken by ourselves as well as other investigators on the effects of antioxidants, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and glutathione on the immune response of aged persons. The underlying mechanisms for the antioxidant nutrients' effects as well as their health implications for aged persons are discussed.
Maagdarmstoornissen: Candida infectie - Prikkelbaredarmsyndroom - Crohn - Colitus Ulcerosa - CVS/ME: Chronische vermoeidheid Syndroom - Diabetische complicaties: Bloeduiker stabilisatie - Neuropathie - Retinopathie - Nefropathie - Hart- en vaatziekten: Cardiomyopathie en Hartfalen - Hoge bloeddruk - Cholesterol verlaging - Aderverkalking (atherosclerose) - Spataderen - Levensverlenging: 100 jaren jong - DHEA - Melatonine - 65+ - Kanker: - Ondersteuningstherapie bij kanker - Bot en gewrichtsaandoeningen: - Artrose - Artritis - Osteoporose - Fibromyalgie: - Fibromyalgie - Urinewegaandoeningen: - Prostaatklachten - Blaasontsteking - Vrouwenklachten: Menopauze - Premenstrueelsyndroom - Overgewicht: - Overgewicht - SLIM - Oogaandoeningen: Staar - Slecht zien Andere artikelen: - HPU - Astma - Multiple Sclerose - Psoriasis - Depressie