- An Integrated View of Oxidative Stress in Aging: Basic Mechanisms, Functional Effects and Pathological Considerations
Aging is an inherently complex process that is manifested within an organism at genetic, molecular, cellular, organ and system levels. Although the fundamental mechanisms are still poorly understood, a growing body of evidence points towards reactive oxygen species (ROS) as one of the primary determinants of aging. The "oxidative stress theory" holds that a progressive and irreversible accumulation of oxidative damage caused by ROS impacts on critical aspects of the aging process and contributes to impaired physiological function, increased incidence of disease, and a reduction in lifespan. While compelling correlative data have been generated to support the oxidative stress theory, a direct cause-and-effect relationship between the accumulation of oxidatively mediated damage and aging has not been strongly established. The goal of this mini-review is to broadly describe mechanisms of in vivo ROS generation, examine the potential impact of ROS and oxidative damage on cellular function, and evaluate how these responses change with aging in physiologically relevant situations. In addition, the mounting genetic evidence that links oxidative stress to aging is discussed, as well as the potential challenges and benefits associated with the development of anti-aging interventions and therapies. Key words: Oxidative damage, free radicals, antioxidants, ROS, oxidants.
- Free radical theory of aging: an update: increasing the functional life span
Aging is the progressive accumulation of diverse, deleterious changes with time that increase the chance of disease and death. The basic chemical process underlying aging was first advanced by the free radical theory of aging (FRTA) in 1954: the reaction of active free radicals, normally produced in the organisms, with cellular constituents initiates the changes associated with aging. The involvement of free radicals in aging is related to their key role in the origin and evolution of life. Aging changes are commonly attributed to development, genetic defects, the environment, disease, and an inborn aging process (IAP). The latter produces aging changes at an exponentially increasing rate with age, becoming the major risk factor for disease and death for humans after the age of 28 years in the developed countries. In them the IAP limits human average life expectancy at birth (ALE-B)--a rough measure of the healthy life span--to about 85 years; few reach 100 years and only one is known to have lived to 122 years. In these countries, improvements in living conditions (ILC) have gradually raised ALE-Bs to 76-79 years, 6-9 years less than the limit imposed by aging, with no change in the maximum life span (MLS). The extensive studies based on the FRTA hold promise that ALE-B and the MLS can be extended, the ALE-B possibly by a few years, and the MLS somewhat less.
- The free radical theory of aging
Aging is the accumulation of changes that increase the risk of death. Aging changes can be attributed to development, genetic defects, the environment, disease, and an inborn process: the aging process. The latter is the major risk factor for disease and death after age 28 in the developed countries. In these countries, average life expectancies at birth (ALE-B) now range from 76 to 79 years, 6-9 years less than the limit of approximately 85 years imposed by aging. Aging changes may be caused by free radical reactions. The extensive studies based on this possibility hold promise that the ALE-B can be extended to >85 years and the maximum life span increased.
- Oxidative stress, accumulation of biological 'garbage', and aging
Normal metabolism is associated with unavoidable mild oxidative stress resulting in biomolecular damage that cannot be totally repaired or removed by cellular degradative systems, including lysosomes, proteasomes, and cytosolic and mitochondrial proteases. Consequently, irreversibly damaged and functionally defective structures (biological 'garbage') accumulate within long-lived postmitotic cells, such as cardiac myocytes and neurons, leading to progressive loss of adaptability and increased probability of death and characterizing a process called aging, or senescence. Intralysosomal 'garbage' is represented by lipofuscin (age pigment), an undegradable autophagocytosed material, while extralysosomal 'garbage' involves oxidatively modified cytosolic proteins, altered biomembranes, defective mitochondria and other organelles. In aged postmitotic cells, heavily lipofuscin-loaded lysosomes perform poorly, resulting in the enhanced accumulation of defective mitochondria, which in turn produce more reactive oxygen species causing additional damage (the mitochondrial-lysosomal axis theory). Potential anti-aging strategies may involve not only overall reduction of oxidative stress, but also the use of intralysosomal iron chelators hampering Fenton-type chemistry as well as the stimulation of cellular degradative systems.
- Garbage catastrophe theory of aging: imperfect removal of oxidative damage?
Increasing evidence suggests an important role of oxidant-induced damage in the progress of senescent changes, providing support for the free radical theory of aging proposed by Harman in 1956. However, considering that biological organisms continuously renew their structures, it is not clear why oxidative damage should accumulate with age. No strong evidence has been provided in favor of the concept of aging as an accumulation of synthetic errors (e.g. Orgel's 'error-catastrophe' theory and the somatic mutation theory). Rather, we believe that the process of aging may derive from imperfect clearance of oxidatively damaged, relatively indigestible material, the accumulation of which further hinders cellular catabolic and anabolic functions. From this perspective, it might be predicted that: (i) suppression of oxidative damage would enhance longevity; (ii) accumulation of incompletely digested material (e.g. lipofuscin pigment) would interfere with cellular functions and increase probability of death; (iii) rejuvenation during reproduction is mainly provided by dilution of undigested material associated with intensive growth of the developing organism; and (iv) age-related damage starts to accumulate substantially when development is complete, and mainly affects postmitotic, cells and extracellular matrix, not proliferating cells. There is abundant support for all these predictions.
- Oxidative stress in brain aging, neurodegenerative and vascular diseases: an overview
According to the free radical theory, aging can be considered as a progressive, inevitable process partially related to the accumulation of oxidative damage into biomolecules -- nucleic acids, lipids, proteins or carbohydrates -- due to an imbalance between prooxidants and antioxidants in favor of the former. More recently also the pathogenesis of several diseases has been linked to a condition of oxidative stress. In this review we focus our attention on the evidence of oxidative stress in aging brain, some of the most important neurodegenerative diseases -- Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Huntington's disease (HD) -- and in two common and highly disabling vascular pathologies--stroke and cardiac failure. Particular attention will be given to the current knowledge about the biomarkers of oxidative stress that can be possibly used to monitor their severity and outcome.
- Role of oxidative stress in development of complications in diabetes
N epsilon-(carboxymethyl)lysine, N epsilon-(carboxymethyl)hydroxylysine, and the fluorescent cross-link pentosidine are formed by sequential glycation and oxidation reactions between reducing sugars and proteins. These compounds, termed glycoxidation products, accumulate in tissue collagen with age and at an accelerated rate in diabetes.
- Oxidative aging and insulin receptor signaling
The life span of nematodes, fruit flies, and mice can be significantly increased (and aging-related changes decreased) by mutations affecting insulin receptor signaling. This effect involves several cellular functions which are negatively regulated by the insulin receptor and thus typically expressed under fasting conditions. This involvement raises the question of whether the insulin-independent basal receptor kinase activity in the postabsorptive state can be decreased without compromising the physiologically important response to insulin in the postprandial state. Recent studies have shown that (a) the basal human insulin receptor kinase activity is increased under oxidative conditions in the absence of insulin and (b) insulin signaling in the fasted state can be decreased by cysteine supplementation. Cysteine supplementation has also been shown to improve certain aging-related parameters, suggesting that the average dietary cysteine consumption in Western countries may be suboptimal. These findings provide a conceptual framework that extends the "free radical theory of aging."
- Oxidative stress and protein aggregation during biological aging
Biological aging is a fundamental process that represents the major risk factor with respect to the development of cancer, neurodegenerative, and cardiovascular diseases in vertebrates. It is, therefore, evident that the molecular mechanisms of aging are fundamental to understand many disease processes. In this regard, the oxidation and nitration of intracellular proteins and the formation of protein aggregates have been suggested to underlie the loss of cellular function and the reduced ability of senescent animals to withstand physiological stresses.
Maagdarmstoornissen: Candida infectie - Prikkelbaredarmsyndroom - Crohn - Colitus Ulcerosa - CVS/ME: Chronische vermoeidheid Syndroom - Diabetische complicaties: Bloeduiker stabilisatie - Neuropathie - Retinopathie - Nefropathie - Hart- en vaatziekten: Cardiomyopathie en Hartfalen - Hoge bloeddruk - Cholesterol verlaging - Aderverkalking (atherosclerose) - Spataderen - Levensverlenging: 100 jaren jong - DHEA - Melatonine - 65+ - Kanker: - Ondersteuningstherapie bij kanker - Bot en gewrichtsaandoeningen: - Artrose - Artritis - Osteoporose - Fibromyalgie: - Fibromyalgie - Urinewegaandoeningen: - Prostaatklachten - Blaasontsteking - Vrouwenklachten: Menopauze - Premenstrueelsyndroom - Overgewicht: - Overgewicht - SLIM - Oogaandoeningen: Staar - Slecht zien Andere artikelen: - HPU - Astma - Multiple Sclerose - Psoriasis - Depressie